Military:  PERU

Military branches:

Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP; includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 7,385,588

females age 16-49: 7,727,623 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,788,629

females age 16-49: 6,565,097 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 304,094

female: 298,447 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1% of GDP (2012)

country comparison to the world: 126

Transnational Issues:  PERU

Disputes - international:

Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

IDPs: 150,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2011)

Illicit drugs:

until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption