Ethiopia

Military:  Ethiopia

Military branches:

Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 19,067,499

females age 16-49: 19,726,816 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 11,868,084

females age 16-49: 12,889,260 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 967,411

female: 981,714 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world: 140

Transnational Issues:  Ethiopia

Disputes - international:

Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 246,144 (Somalia); 38,063 (Sudan); 62,996 (Eritrea) (2013)

IDPs: 200,000-300,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000, ethnic clashes in Gambela, and ongoing Ethiopian military counterinsurgency in Somali region; most IDPs are in Tigray and Gambela Provinces) (2008)

Illicit drugs:

transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center

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